Flower Seed Care & Maintenance

Buy Flower Seeds

Care and Maintenance For Flowers

 

Information gathered from The Royal Horticultural Society A - Z Encyclopedia of Garden Plants

Flower seed planting instructions are on each packet sold. Therefore, when you receive your flower seeds, each packet will be labeled with the appropriate planting instructions for the flower seed you purchased. This page is dedicated to the care and maintenance of each garden flower that we sell in flower seed packets.

Abutilon - Indoors, grow in loam-based potting compost (No. 2) in full light. In the growing season, water freely and apply a balanced liquid fertilizer monthly; water sparingly in winter. Outdoors, grow in moderately fertile, well-drained soil in full sun. Pruning group 1 or 6, as required, for deciduous shrubs; group 9 for evergreens. Pruning group 13 for wall trained abutilons.

To purchase Abutilon seed, see: Abutilon

African Daisy - Grow in light, well-drained, fertile soil in full sun, in a sheltered position. Dead-head regularly to prolong flowering.

To purchase African Daisy seed, see: African Daisy

Agastache - Grow in well-drained, fertile soil in full sun. In warmer areas, less hardy species will overwinter in a sheltered site.

To purchase Agastache seed, see: Agastache

Ageratum - Grow in fertile, moist but well-drained soil in full sun, in a sheltered site. Water freely in midsummer to prolong flowering. Dead-head to encourage a second flowering.

To purchase Ageratum seed, see: Ageratum

Agrostemma - Grow in preferably poor, well-drained soil in full sun. The lax growth needs staking. Dead-head to prolong flowering, but allow last seed crop to self-sow.

To purchase Agrostemma seed, see: Agrostemma

Ajuga - Grow in any moist soil in partial shade or part-day sun, as the foliage may be scorch in full sun. A. reptans and its cultivars will tolerate poor soils, even in full shade.

To purchase Ajuga seed, see: Ajuga Groundcover Seed

Allium - Grow in fertile, well-drained soil in full sun. Plant bulbs 2 - 4 inches deep in autumn; plant clump-forming species with rhizomes at, or just below, the soil surface in spring. Grow alliums from areas with hot, dry summers in sandy, loam-based potting compost in an alpine house; keep dry when dormant in summer.

To purchase Allium seed, see: Allium Cernuum

Alternanthera - Indoors, grow in loam-based potting compost (No. 2) in full light. In the growing season, water freely and apply a balanced liquid fertilizer monthly; in winter, water sparingly and keep well ventilated. Outdoors, plant out after any risk of frost has passed; grow in moist, but well-drained soil, in full sun for best leaf color, or in partial shade. Clip over to maintain compactness.

To purchase Alternanthera seed, see: Alternanthera

Alyssum - Grow in well-drained, moderately fertile, preferably gritty, loamy soil in full sun. Trim lightly after flowering to maintain compact shape on the plant.

To purchase Alyssum seed, see: Alyssum

Amaranthus - Indoors, grow in loam-based potting compost (No. 2) in full light. Water freely in summer, and provide high humidity if possible. Outdoors, grow in moderately fertile, humus-rich, moist soil in full sun in a sheltered site. Amaranthus Caudatus will tolerate poor soil. Water freely during dry periods in summer to prolong flowering.

To purchase Amaranthus seed, see: Amaranthus

Ammobium - Grow in any light, well-drained soil, preferably low in nutrients, in full sun. Cut flower heads from drying before fully opening.

To purchase Ammobium seed, see: Ammobium Alatum

Anemone - Anemones have varying growing requirements. For easy of reference, these are grouped as follows:

To purchase Anemone seed, see: Anemone

  1. Moist but well-drained, humus-rich soil in partial shade, although drier conditions are tolerated when dormant in the summer.
  2. Well-drained, humus-rich soil in sun or partial shade.
  3. Light, sandy soil in full sun. Ensure a dry dormancy after flowering. Mulch for winter protection, or lift and overwinter in sand in a frost-free place.
  4. Moist, fertile, humus-rich soil in sun or partial shade. Some species may be invasive once established. They will not tolerate excessive winter wet. Mulch in spring and late autumn in cold areas.

Angelonia - Indoors, grow in loam-based potting compost (No. 2) in full light, with filtered light in summer. Water freely and apply a balanced liquid fertilizer monthly. Containerized plants are best discarded after flowering. Outdoors, grow in moist but well-drained, fertile, soil in full sun.

To purchase Angelonia seed, see: Angelonia Serena Mix

Anise Hyssop - See Agastache.

To purchase Anise Hyssop seed, see: Anise Hyssop

Anthyllis - Grow in well-drained, poor to moderately fertile soil in full sun. Trim untidy plants after flowering.

To purchase Anthyllis seed, see: Anthyllis

Arabis - Grow in well-drained soil in full sun. Will tolerate hot, dry conditions and poor soil. Water freely when in growth, sparingly in the winter. Trim after flowering to maintain compactness.

To purchase Arabis seed, see: Arabis - Snow Peak

Arenaria - Grow in moist, but well-drained, sandy, poor soil in full sun. A. tetraquetra requires very sharp drainage. A. Balearica thrives in partial shade.

To purchase Arenaria seed, see: Arenaria Montana

Armeria - Grow in well-drained, poor to moderately fertile soil in an open situation in full sun.

To purchase Armeria seed, see: Armeria

Asarina - Grow in fertile, well-drained, sandy soil in partial shade.

To purchase Asarina seed, see: Asarina

Asparagus - Indoors, grow in loam-based potting compost (No. 2) in bright filtered light, with shade from hot sun. Water freely from early spring to mid-autumn, applying a balanced fertilizer monthly; water more sparingly in winter. Pot on in spring. Provide support for climbers. Outdoors, grow in fertile, moist, but well-drained soil in a sheltered site in partial shade.

To purchase Asparagus seed, see: Asparagus Fern

Aster - Asters have varying growing requirements. For ease of reference, these are grouped as follows:

To purchase Aster seed, see: Aster

  1. Well-cultivated, fertile, moist soil in sun or partial shade.
  2. Well-drained, open, moderately fertile soil in full sun.
  3. Moist, moderately fertile soil in partial shade.
Mulch all asters annually after cutting back in late autumn. State tall perennials (30 - 36 inches) or more high, from early spring. To maintain vigor and flower quality, divide cultivars of A. Novae-angliae and A. Novi-belgii every third year.

 

Astilbe - Grow in moist, humus-rich soil or boggy sites in full sun; in drier soils, grow in partial shade. Astilbes prefer fertile soil and will not thrive in chalky or clay soils that dry out in summer. Divide and replant every 3 to 4 years to maintain vigor and flower quality, discarding old, woody rhizomes. The flowers and foliage may be damaged by late frosts.

To purchase Astilbe seed, see: Astilbe

Aubrieta - Grow in moderately fertile, well-drained, preferably neutral or alkaline soil in full sun. Cut back after flowering to maintain compactness.

To purchase Aubrieta seed, see: Aubrieta - Whitewell Gem

Baby Blue Eyes - Grow in fertile, moist but well-drained soil in full sun or partial shade. May cease flowering in hot, dry weather if not watered.

To purchase Baby Blue Eyes seed, see: Baby Blue Eyes

Balloon Flower - Grow in deep, light, fertile, loamy, reliably moist but well-drained soil in full sun or partial shade. Stems may require support.

To purchase Balloon Flower seed, see: Balloon Flower

Begonia - Indoors, grow all begonias in light, well-drained, neutral to slightly acid, loamless or loam-based potting compost (No. 2) in bright light, with shade from direct sun. Water moderately when in growth, sparing in winter; ensure the potting compost is never wet or waterlogged. Apply balanced liquid fertilizer at alternate waterings when in full growth. Pot on annually in spring. For optimum growth, maintain at 66 - 77F, with moderate humidity. Most survive short periods at or below 50F, especially in dry compost, but all growth will cease and many will shed their leaves. Succulent begonias need very well-drained soil, higher light levels, and drier conditions. Outdoors, grown begonias in fertile, well-drained, humus-rich, neutral to slightly acid soil in partial shade or good light, but out of direct sunlight.

To purchase Begonia seed, see: Begonia

Bellflower - For ease of reference, campanulas have been divided in to the following groups:

To purchase Bellflower seed, see: Campanula

  1. Campanulas that need fertile, neutral to alkaline, moist but well-drained soil, in sun or partial shade; the delicate flowers are best preserved in shade. C. pyramidalis, C. sarmatica, and C. trachelium thrive in dry soils, the first 2 in full sun, the last in partial shade. Taller species require staking. Cut back after flowering to prevent self-seeding and to encourage a second, less profuse flush of flowers.
  2. Robust, rock-garden species, requiring moist but well-drained soil in sun or partial shade. Some thrive on a sunny wall or bank.
  3. Species that enjoy the winter protection of deep, dry snow cover in their natural habitat and, in cultivation, will not tolerate winter wet. Grow in a scree bed, in tufa, in gritty, moist but sharply drained soil in a trough, or in an alpine house in loam-based potting compost (No. 1) with up to one-third by volume of grit.
  4. Tender perennials. In frost-prone areas, grow indoors or under glass in loam-based potting compost (No. 2) in bright filtered light with good ventilation. In growth, water moderately and apply a balanced liquid fertilizer monthly; keep moist in winter. In frost-free areas, grow outdoors in an open site in well-drained, fertile soil in sun or partial shade. Cut dead stems to the base before winter.

 

Bellis - Grow in well-drained, moderately fertile soil in full sun or partial shade. Dead-head to avoid self-sowing. For winter flowering container plants, grow in loam-based potting compost (No. 1), water moderately, and maintain at 39 - 45F.

To purchase Bellis seed, see: Bellis

Bergenia - Grow in humus-rich, moist but well-drained soil in full sun or partial shade. Most dislike extremes of heat or drought, but will tolerate exposure to wet soil, which enhances their winter leaf color. Mulch in autumn. Frost may damage early flowers, and the foliage of some species may die back in winter.

To purchase Bergenia seed, see: Bergenia Cordifolia

Bird of Paradise - Indoors, grow in large containers or in a greenhouse border in loam-based potting compost (No. 3). Provide full light with shade from hot sun, and ventilate freely when temperatures exceed 68F. In the growing season, water freely and apply a balanced liquid fertilizer monthly. Water sparingly in winter. Top-dress annually and repot every second year. Outdoors, grow in fertile, moist but well-drained soil in full sun or partial shade, with shelter from strong winders.

To purchase Bird of Paradise seed, see: Bird of Paradise Flower Seed

Bishop's Flower - Grow in any moist but well-drained, fertile soil in sun or partial shade. Provide support when seedlings are 3 - 4 inches high.

To purchase Bishop's Flower seed, see: Bishop's Flower Seeds

Blackberry Lily - Grow in humus-rich, moist but well-drained soil that does not dry out in summer, in full sun or partial shade.

To purchase Blackberry Lily seed, see: Blackberry Lily

Blue Daisy - Indoors, grow in loam-based potting compost (No. 2) in full light, with low humidity and good ventilation. During growth, water moderately and apply a balanced liquid fertilizer monthly. Water sparingly in winter. Outdoors, grow in poor to moderately fertile, wel-drained soil in full sun. Intolerant of damp. Pinch back young shoots to encourage bushiness.

To purchase Blue Daisy seed, see: Blue Daisy

Blue-Eyed Grass - Grow in poor to moderately fertile, well-drained, neutral to alkaline soil in full sun. Protect from excessive winter wet.

To purchase Blue-Eyed Grass seed, see: Blue-Eyed Grass

Brachycome - Indoors, grow in loam-based potting compost (No. 1) in full light. During the growing season, water freely and apply a balanced liquid fertilizer twice; keep moist in winter. Pinch out growing tips of young plants. Outdoors, grow in fertile, well-drained soil in a sheltered site in full sun.

To purchase Brachycome seed, see: Brachycome

Browallia - Indoors, grow in loam-based potting compost (No. 2) in full light, with shade from hot sun and good ventilation. When in full growth, water moderately and apply a balanced liquid fertilizer monthly; keep just moist in winter. Pinch out the growing tips to encourage bushy plants. Outdoors, grow in fertile, well-drained soil in full sun or partial shade.

To purchase Browallia seed, see: Browallia

Bugloss - Grow in any moist but well-drained, moderately fertile soil in full sun. Tall species and cultivars may need staking when in flower. Cut back top-growth after flowering to encourage the development of overwintering basal rosettes. Dead-head after the first flush of flowers to encourage a second flush. Most species resent excessive winter wet.

To purchase Bugloss seed, see: Bugloss

Bupleurum - Grow in full sun in any well-drained soil. Dead-head to avoid self-sowing. Pruning group 9, if needed; tolerates hard pruning.

To purchase Bupleurum seed, see: Bupleurum

Bur Marigold - Grow in reasonably fertile, moist but well-drained soil in full sun. Indoors, plants grown in containers will flower from mid-spring through to winter if kept in frost-free conditions.

To purchase Bur Marigold seed, see: Bur Marigold

Burning Bush (Dictamnus) - Grow in any dry, well-drained, moderately fertile soil in full sun or partial shade.

To purchase Burning Bush (Dictamnus) seed, see: Burning Bush

Burning Bush (Kochia) - No information at this time.

To purchase Burning Bush (Kochia) seed, see: Burning Bush

Butterfly Bush - Indoors, grow in loam-based potting compost (No. 3) in full light with good ventilation. Water freely in growth, sparingly in the winter. Outdoors, grow in fertile, well-drained soil in full sun. Pruning group 6 for most. Pruning group 13 for wall-trained plants: after flowering for those blooming in spring or early summer, in spring for late-summer and autumn-flowering species.

To purchase Butterfly Bush seed, see: Butterfly Bush

Butterfly Flower - Indoors, grow in loam-based potting compost (No. 2) in full light with shade from hot sun, or bright filtered light. In growth, water moderately, and apply a high potash liquid fertilizer every two weeks. Support flowering stems. Excessive heat produces elongated plants. Outdoors, grow in fertile, moist but well-drained soil in full sun. Pinch back young plants to promote bushiness.

To purchase Butterfly Flower seed, see: Butterfly Flower

Butterfly Weed - Indoors, grow in loam-based potting compost A(No. 2) th additional leaf mould, in full light. In the growing season, water freely and apply a balanced liquid fertilizer every 5 to 6 weeks; reduce water after flowering and keep almost dry in winter. Outdoors, grow in fertile, well-drained, loamy soil in full sun, although A. incarnata and A. speciosa prefer more moisture and will thrive near a pond or stream. Grow A. hallii and A. syriaca in wildflower garden, as they spread by underground suckers and are unsuitable for a border.

To purchase Butterfly Weed seed, see: Butterfly Weed

Calendula - Indoors, grow in loam-based potting compost (No. 2) in full light; water moderately. Outdoors, grow in well-drained, even poor soil in sun or partial shade. Dead-head to prolong flowering. If growing for cutflowers, pinch out terminal buds to encourage laterals.

To purchase Calendula seed, see: Calendula

California Bluebell - Grow annuals in fertilie, well-drain soil in full sun. Outdoors, protect from winter wet; in an alpine house, grow in a mix of equal parts of loam, leaf mould, and grit.

To purchase California Bluebell seed, see: California Bluebell

Candytuft - Grow in poor to moderately fertile, moist but well-drained, neutral to alkaline soil in full sun. Pruning group 10, after flowering. Trim perennials and subshrubs lightly after flowering to maintain compactness.

To purchase Candytuft seed, see: Candytuft

Canterbury Bells - For ease of reference, campanulas have been divided in to the following groups:

To purchase Canterbury Bells seed, see: Canterbury Bells - Rose-Pink

  1. Campanulas that need fertile, neutral to alkaline, moist but well-drained soil, in sun or partial shade; the delicate flowers are best preserved in shade. C. pyramidalis, C. sarmatica, and C. trachelium thrive in dry soils, the first 2 in full sun, the last in partial shade. Taller species require staking. Cut back after flowering to prevent self-seeding and to encourage a second, less profuse flush of flowers.
  2. Robust, rock-garden species, requiring moist but well-drained soil in sun or partial shade. Some thrive on a sunny wall or bank.
  3. Species that enjoy the winter protection of deep, dry snow cover in their natural habitat and, in cultivation, will not tolerate winter wet. Grow in a scree bed, in tufa, in gritty, moist but sharply drained soil in a trough, or in an alpine house in loam-based potting compost (No. 1) with up to one-third by volume of grit.
  4. Tender perennials. In frost-prone areas, grow indoors or under glass in loam-based potting compost (No. 2) in bright filtered light with good ventilation. In growth, water moderately and apply a balanced liquid fertilizer monthly; keep moist in winter. In frost-free areas, grow outdoors in an open site in well-drained, fertile soil in sun or partial shade. Cut dead stems to the base before winter.

 

Cape Gooseberry - Grow in any well-drained soil in full sun or partial shade. Cut stems for drying as the calyces begin to color.

To purchase Cape Gooseberry seed, see: Cape Gooseberry

Cardinal Climber - Indoors, grow in loam-based potting compost (No. 2) in full light, with shade from the hottest sun. During growth, water freely and apply a balanced liquid fertilizer monthly. Water sparingly in winter. Support climbers and trailing species. Outdoors, grow in moderately fertile, well-drained soil in full sun. Shelter from cold, drying winds. Pruning group 11 for climbing species, in spring.

To purchase Cardinal Climber seed, see: Cardinal Climber

Cardiospermum - Indoors, grow in loam-based potting compost (No. 3) in bright filtered light. In the growing season, water freely and apply a liquid fertilizer monthly; keep just moist in winter. Pot on our top-dress in spring. Outdoors, grow in fertile, moist but well-drained soil in full sun. Provide support. In early spring, thin out congested growth of plants grown as perennials.

To purchase Cardiospermum seed, see: Cardiospermum Halicacabum

Carnation - All fully hardy Dianthus species and cultivars prefer well-drained, neutral to alkaline soil, in full sun, although dianthus glasialis, dianthus microlepis, and dianthus pavonius prefer acid conditions.

To purchase Carnation seed, see: Carnation

Alpine species benefit from the sharp drainage of a raised bed, wall or trough. Grow annual and biennial pinks in full sun in well drained, neutral to acid soil, enriched with well rotted manure and top dressed with a balanced granular fertilizer. Discard after flowering. Grow other biennial dianthus in well drained, neutral to alkaline soil in full sun. Provide twiggy support in exposed areas. Remove flower stems after flowing to induce a second crop in the following year.

Plant young border carnations and pinks in soil enriched with well rotted manure or garden compost, and apply a balanced fertilizer in spring. Do not bury the lowest leaves. Support border carnations in late spring, using then cans or twigs, 30 inches long, and wire rings. In the first year, rmove only the small bud below each crown bud; second year plants need moderate disbudding; disbud 3 year old border carnations to leave 1 or 2 buds per stem.

Grow perpetual flowing and Malmaison carnations in doors at 45-50F in loam based potting compost (No. 2). Stop cuttings to leave 6 pairs of leaves. Admid full light in winter, and bright filtered light in summer with good ventilation at all times. Provide low humidity in winter. To prevent formation of split calyces, prevalent in older cultivars, avoid fluctuating temperatures, erratic watering, and over fertilizing. In spring and summer, water moderately and apply a balanced liquid fertilizer every 10 days; water sparingly in autumn and winter. Support flowering stems with rings and 4 foot canes. Disbud gradually over several days, to leave only the crown buds. Dead-head all Dianthus species and cultivars to maintain a compact habit or to prolong flowering.

Castor Bean - Indoors, grow in loam-based potting compost (No. 2) in full light. In growth, water freely and apply a balanced liquid fertilizer monthly; water sparingly in winter. Outdoors, grow in fertile, humus-rich, well-drained soil in full sun. Stake in exposed sites. Plants grown on poor soils tend to produce flowers at the expense of vegetative growth and bear smaller leaves. Pruning group 9; plants grown indoors may need restrictive pruning.

To purchase Castor Bean seed, see: Castor Beans

Catmint - Grow in any well-drained soil in full sun or partial shade. Provide support for all taller catmints; trim N. Nervosa and N. faassenii after flowering to keep plants compact and to induce a second flowering.

To purchase Catmint seed, see: Catmint

Celosia - Indoors, grow in loam-based potting compost (No. 1) in full light with good ventilation; when in bloom, admit only bright filtered light to prolong flowering. Once the roots fill the container, water moderately but regularly, mist lightly, and apply a balanced liquid fertilizer every two weeks. Outdoors, after any danger of frost has passed, plant in moist but well-drained, fertile soil in a sheltered position in full sun; water freely in dry weather.

To purchase Celosia seed, see: Celosia

Cerinthe Major - Grow in poor, well-drained, preferably alkaline soil in sun or partial shade.

To purchase Cerinthe Major seed, see: Cerinthe Major

Chamomile - Roman - Grow in an open site in well-drained, preferably light, sandy soil in full sun. To produce a lawn or seat, plant 5 to 6 inches apart, and water freely until established. Cut plants back regularly to encourage dense growth; occasional rolling and treading of lawns will help maintain an even surface.

To purchase Chamomile - Roman seed, see: Chamomile - Roman

Chicory - Grow in fertile, well-draines soil in full sun. Protect from excessive winter wet.

To purchase Chicory seed, see: Chicory Wildflower Seed

Chinese Forget Me Not - Grow in moderately fertile, moist but well-drained soil in sun or partial shade. Plants become course and leafy and may not flower well in soil that is too fertile; they do not thrive in heavy clay soils.

To purchase Chinese Forget Me Not seed, see: Chinese Forget Me Not

Chinese Houses - Grow in fertile, humus-rich, moist but well-drained soil in a sheltered, sunny to partially shaded site. Provide light twiggy support. Water in dry weather to prolong flowering.

To purchase Chinese Houses seed, see: Chinese Houses

Chinese Lantern - Grow in any well-drained soil in full sun or partial shade. Cut stems for drying as the calyces begin to color.

To purchase Chinese Lantern seed, see: Chinese Lantern

Christmas Rose - Hellebores tolerates a range of moist, fertile, humus-rich soils, but have varying "ideal" growing requirements. For ease of reference, these have been grouped as follows:

To purchase Christmas Rose seed, see: Christmas Rose

  1. Neutral to alkaline soil in dappled shade.
  2. Heavy, neutral to alkaline soil in dapple shade.
  3. Neutral to alkaline soil in full sun or dappled shade.
  4. Any soil, but preferably acid, in partial shade.

Incorporate leaf mould or organic matter at planting, and mulch annually in autumn. For all groups, avoid dry or waterlogged soils, and provide shelter from strong, cold winds.

Chrysanthemum - Pot chrysanthemums will be sold in potting compost with sufficient nutrients to sustain flowering over a long period. Provide bright filtered light and good ventilation, with a winter minimum of 50F. Water moderately; allow the potting compost to become almost dry between waterings. Over-watering is the most common cause of early failure.

To purchase Chrysanthemum seed, see: Chrysanthemum

Grow early flowering and mid-season florists

Water freely in dry weather and apply a balanced liquid fertilizer every 7 - 10 days from midsummer until buds begin to show color. In mid to late autumn, cut back flowered stems to 6 - 9 inches. Lift crowns and store over winter in loamless potting compost in frost free conditions. In areas experiencing only light frost, leave in situ, apply a deep, dry winter mulch, and cut back in early spring. Protect early and mid season exhibitions cultivars from rain and frost. White and yellow flower cultivars may be adequately protected by grease proof paper bags, put in place as buds begin to show color. Cultivars of other colors, and all large flowered cultivars of any color, are best growing in an open sided, polythene covered lath house or cold greenhouse.

Grow late flowering florists

Grow Rubellum Group and other hardy outdoor chrysanthemums including chrysanthemum carinatum, in well drained, moderately fertile soil in full sun.

Cigar Plant - Indoors, grow in loam-based potting compost (No. 2) in full light with shade from hot sun and in moderate humidity. In the growing season, water freely and apply a balanced liquid fertilizer every 3 to 4 weeks; water sparingly in winter. Outdoors, grow in moderately fertile, well-drained soil in full sun or partial shade. Pruning group 10, in spring.

To purchase Cigar Plant seed, see: Cigar Plant

Cineraria - Grow in moderately fertile, well-drained soil in full sun with midday shade. Amigo variety can be grown indoors in loam-based potting compost (No. 2) in full light with shade from hot sun. During growth, water moderately and apply a balanced liquid fertilizer every two weeks.

To purchase Cineraria seed, see: Cineraria

Cinquefoil - Grow in poor to moderately fertile, well-drained soil in full sun. Rock garden species prefer poor, gritty, sharply drained soil. Pruning group 10 for shrubs, in early or mid-spring.

To purchase Cinquefoil seed, see: Cinquefoil

Cladanthus - Indoors, grow in loam-based potting compost (No. 2) in full light. Provide good ventilation and a minimum temperature of 45 - 50F. In growth, water moderately and apply a balanced liquid fertilizer every 2 - 3 weeks. Outdoors, grow in light, moderately fertile, well-drained soil in full sun. Dead-head for continuous flowering.

To purchase Cladanthus seed, see: Cladanthus Arabicus

Clarkia - Grow in moderately fertile, moist but well-drained, slightly acid soil in sun or partial shade. Very fertile soil encourages growth of foliage at the expense of the flowers. They dislike hot, humid conditions.

To purchase Clarkia seed, see: Clarkia Wildflowers

Clematis - Grow in fertile, humus-rich, well-drained soil in sun or partial shade, with the roots and base of the plant in shade. Herbaceous species prefer full sun. Mulch all clematis in late winter with garden compost or well-rotted manure, avoiding the immediate crown. Plant climbing clematis with the top of the root ball about 3 inches below the soil surface. After planting, cut back top growth of deciduous climbers to a strong pair of buds about 12 inches above soil level. Provide strong support and tie in initially until plants begin to climb by themselves. Prune early flowering varieties after flowering, removing dead or damaged stems and shortening others to their allotted space. For early to mid-season, large flowered clematis, removed dead and damaged stems before growth begins in early spring, trimming all remaining stems back to where strong buds are visible. For late, large-flowered clematis cultivars, cut back all the previous year's stems to a pair of strong buds 6 - 8 inches above soil level, before growth begins in early spring.

To purchase Clematis seed, see: Clematis

Cleome - Indoors, grow in loam-based potting compost (No. 2) in full light. In the growing season, water freely and apply a balanced liquid fertilizer every 3 - 4 weeks. Outdoors, grow in light, fertile, preferably sandy, free-draining soil in full sun. Dead-head to prolong flowering and water freely in dry weather.

To purchase Cleome seed, see: Cleome

Cockscomb - Indoors, grow in loam-based potting compost (No. 1) in full light with good ventilation; when in bloom, admit only bright filtered light to prolong flowering. Once the roots fill the container, water moderately but regularly, mist lightly, and apply a balanced liquid fertilizer every two weeks. Outdoors, after any danger of frost has passed, plant in moist but well-drained, fertile soil in a sheltered position in full sun; water freely in dry weather.

To purchase Cockscomb seed, see: Cockscomb - Carmine

Coffea Arabica - Grow Coffea arabica in different types of soil -- clay, sand, loam, acidic or alkaline -- as long as the ground is well aerated and the site provides partial shade. Build a 3 to 4 inch mulch ring around the coffee shrub. Use compost, grass clippings or other organic mulch to slow evaporation and suppress weeds. The matter also provides nutrients as it decomposes. Irrigate the plant to maintain the root zone moist. Coffee plants have only moderate drought tolerance. Feed the Coffea arabica shrub an all-purpose, slow-release fertilizer in spring. Spread it around the plant's base according to the rates listed on the manufacturer's label. Water in the nutrient. Prune the shrub to control its height, especially if you plan to harvest the berries. Remove dead, diseased and broken twigs. Make pruning cuts at 45-degree angles, 1/4 inch above buds. Slant the cut upward. Saw the trunks of old coffee shrubs back to 1 foot from the ground to rejuvenate the plants. Cover the cuts with pruning paint to prevent infection. The stems regrow with renewed vigor after a hard pruning.

To purchase Coffea Arabica seed, see: Coffea Arabica

Coleus - Indoors, grow in loam-based potting compost (No. 3) or loamless potting compost in bright filtered or moderate light. In growth, water freely and apply a high nitrogen fertilizer every two weeks. Keep just moist in winter and give an occasional feed of high potash fertilizer. If required as large specimens, pot on annually in spring or summer. Outdoors, grow in humus-rich, moist but well-drained soil. Provide a sheltered position in full sun or partial shade. Water freely in dry weather. Pinch out young shoots regularly to maintain foliage color and compact plant shape. It is best to remove emerging flower spikes to maintain shapely plants.

To purchase Coleus seed, see: Coleus

Columbine - Grow in fertile, preferably moist but well-drained soil in full sun or partial shade. Grow alpine species in gritty, humus-rich, moist but sharply drained soil in full sun.

To purchase Columbine seed, see: Columbine

Common Primrose - Most species grow in full sun or partial shade, in moderately fertile, moist but well-drained, humus-rich soil. If growing indoors as a houseplant, use a mix of 4 parts loam-based potting compost (No. 2) and 1 part each grit and leaf mould in bright filtered light. In growth, water freely and apply a half-strength balanced liquid fertilizer every week.

To purchase Common Primrose seed, see: Common Primrose - Blue

Coreopsis - Outdoors, grow in fertile, well-drained soil in full sun or partial shade. Dead-head to prolong flowering. Support taller cultivars.

To purchase Coreopsis seed, see: Coreopsis

Cornflower - Grow in well-drained soil in full sun. Will tolerate some drought.

To purchase Cornflower seed, see: Cornflower

Corydalis - Corydalis species have varying growing requirements, which for ease of reference, are grouped as follows:

To purchase Corydalis seed, see: Corydalis - Manchu

  1. Full sun or partial shade and fertile, well-draines soil. Often self-seed freely.
  2. Full sun and sharply drained, moderately fertile soil in a rock garden. May tolerate partial shade.
  3. Partial shade and moderately humus-rich soil, moist but well drained.
  4. Grow in a bulb frame or alpine house, in equal parts of loam, leaf mould, and grit. Resent excessive winter wet.

 

Cosmidium - For best results, provide a well-drained soil in full sun. When large enough to handle, transplant seedlings into 3 inch pots or trays. Gradually acclimatise young plants to outdoor conditions for 10 - 15 days before planting out after all risk of frost, 9 - 12 inches apart.

To purchase Cosmidium seed, see: Cosmidium Brunette

Cosmos - Grow in moderately fertile, moist but well-drained soil in full sun. Dead-head to prolong flowering, leaving a few flowers heads as annual species, which often will self-seed.

To purchase Cosmos seed, see: Cosmos

Cotton - Grow in well-drained loamy, sandy soil that is neutral to slightly acidic in full sun. Sheltered locations work best. Levant cotton needs a long, hot growing season. In cooler areas start off indoors so you can use the full length of the summer heat. It is not very frost tolerant. Can be grown as an annual.

To purchase Cotton seed, see: Cotton - Levant

Craspedia - Grow annuals in any well-drained soil in full sun. Grow perennials in sharply drained, low fertility, humus-rich, gritty soil in full sun; protect from excessive winter wet. Indoors, grow in a mix of equal parts loam, leaf mould, and sharp sand, with a top-dressing of grit. Water freely when in growth (avoiding the foliage) and keep just moist in winter.

To purchase Craspedia seed, see: Craspedia Globosa

Creeping Thyme - Grow in well-drained neutal to alkaline soil in full sun. After flowering, cut vigorous thymes back hard to maintain compactness. In an alpine house, use equal parts loam, leaf mould, and grit. Pruning group 10, in spring, for upright, shrubby species.

To purchase Creeping Thyme seed, see: Creeping Thyme

Creeping Zinnia - Grow in moderately fertile, humus-rich, well-drained soil in full sun.

To purchase Creeping Zinnia seed, see: Creeping Zinnia

Crepis - Grow in any well-drained soil in full sun.

To purchase Crepis seed, see: Crepis

Cupids Dart - Grow in any well-drained soil in full sun;C. caerulea is often short-lived in heavy soil.

To purchase Cupids Dart seed, see: Cupids Dart

Cyclamen - Grow in moderately fertile, humus-rich, well-drained soil in partial shade, under trees or shrubs, to avoid excessive summer moisture. Mulch annually with leaf mould as leaves wither; in areas with prolong frost, provide a deep, loose mulch. Grow half-hardy species in a cool greenhouse, in bright filtered light with moderate humidity. In growth, water moderately. Reduce water and humidity as leaves fade; keep completely dry in dormancy. Apply a low-nitrogen liquid fertilizer every 6 - 8 weeks when in full leaf. Plant with the tops of the tubers just above the soil surface. Grow in loam-based potting compost (No. 2) in bright filtered light (full light winter) and even temperature of 55 - 61F.

To purchase Cyclamen seed, see: Cyclamen

Cypress Vine - Indoors, grow in loam-based potting compost (No. 2) in full light, with shade from the hottest sun. During growth, water freely and apply a balanced liquid fertilizer monthly. Water sparingly in winter. Support climbers and trailing species. Outdoors, grow in moderately fertile, well-drained soil in full sun. Shelter from cold, drying winds. Pruning group 11 for climbing species, in spring.

To purchase Cypress Vine seed, see: Cypress Vine

Dahlberg Daisy - Grow in well-drained, moderately fertile soil in full sun.

To purchase Dahlberg Daisy seed, see: Dahlberg Daisy

Dahlia - Grow in fertile, humus-rich, well-drained soil in full sun. All dahlias benefit from high nitrogen liquid fertilizer weekly in early summer, then a high potash fertilizer every week from midsummer to early autumn. Bedding dahlias need to staking or disbudding; simply pinch out the growing tip to encourage bushiness, and dead-head as flowers fade. For taller dahlias, insert canes on planting, and tie in as growth proceeds; when plants are 16 inches tall, pinch out the growing tips to encourage branching. For giant blooms, restrict plants to 3 - 5 flowering stems; for smaller blooms, allow 7 - 10 flowering stems. To produce high quality blooms, remove the 2 pairs of buds developing in the leaf axils below the terminal bud; for giant blooms, remove 3 pairs. Dead-head as flowers fade. In mid-autumn, preferably when the foliage has been blackened by the first frost, cut back stems to 6 inches, and lift the tubers. Gently brush off the soil, and place upside down in frost-free conditions to dry naturally. Dust with fungicide, then pack in boxes of peat or dry sand and store over winter in a well-ventilated, frost-free place. Check periodically for fungal infection, cut out any damaged tissue, and re-treat with fungicide, then return to store. Dahlias may be left in the ground over winter, but where heavy occassional frosts are expected, apply a deep mulch and cover with plastic to keep tubers frost free and dry.

To purchase Dahlia seed, see: Dahlia

Dame's Rocket - Grow in fertile, moist but well-drained, neutral to alkaline soil in sun or partial shade. Add leaf mould or organic matter when planting double flowered cultivars. Replace plants every 2 - 3 years, as flowering diminishes with age.

To purchase Dame's Rocket seed, see: Dame's Rocket

Delphinium - Grow in fertile, well-drained soil in full sun, with shelter from strong winds. Except for the dwarf perennials, most delphiniums need staking: the low-growing cultivars with twiggy, brushwood support; the taller, larger flowered ones with stout canes. Insert supports no later than midspring, or when the plants reach 12 inches high. To ensure good quality flower spikes, thin shoots when 3 inches high; leave a minimum of 2 or 3 shoots on young plants and 5 - 7strong shoots on well-established ones. In growth, water all plants freely, applying a balanced liquid fertilizer every 2 - 3 weeks. Dead-head by cutting spent flower spikes back to small, flowering sideshoots. Cut all growth to ground level after it has withered in autumn.

To purchase Delphinium seed, see: Delphinium

Dianthus - All fully hardy Dianthus species and cultivars prefer well-drained, neutral to alkaline soil, in full sun, although dianthus glasialis, dianthus microlepis, and dianthus pavonius prefer acid conditions.

To purchase Dianthus seed, see: Dianthus

Alpine species benefit from the sharp drainage of a raised bed, wall or trough. Grow annual and biennial pinks in full sun in well drained, neutral to acid soil, enriched with well rotted manure and top dressed with a balanced granular fertilizer. Discard after flowering. Grow other biennial dianthus in well drained, neutral to alkaline soil in full sun. Provide twiggy support in exposed areas. Remove flower stems after flowing to induce a second crop in the following year.

Plant young border carnations and pinks in soil enriched with well rotted manure or garden compost, and apply a balanced fertilizer in spring. Do not bury the lowest leaves. Support border carnations in late spring, using then cans or twigs, 30 inches long, and wire rings. In the first year, rmove only the small bud below each crown bud; second year plants need moderate disbudding; disbud 3 year old border carnations to leave 1 or 2 buds per stem.

Grow perpetual flowing and Malmaison carnations in doors at 45-50F in loam based potting compost (No. 2). Stop cuttings to leave 6 pairs of leaves. Admid full light in winter, and bright filtered light in summer with good ventilation at all times. Provide low humidity in winter. To prevent formation of split calyces, prevalent in older cultivars, avoid fluctuating temperatures, erratic watering, and over fertilizing. In spring and summer, water moderately and apply a balanced liquid fertilizer every 10 days; water sparingly in autumn and winter. Support flowering stems with rings and 4 foot canes. Disbud gradually over several days, to leave only the crown buds. Dead-head all Dianthus species and cultivars to maintain a compact habit or to prolong flowering.

Diascia - Grow in fertile, moist but well-drained soil in full sun. Water in dry periods. Dead-head regularly.

To purchase Diascia seed, see: Diascia - Pink Queen

Dicentra Eximia - Grow in moist, fertile, humus-rich soil, preferably neutral or slightly alkaline, in partial shade.

To purchase Dicentra Eximia seed, see: Dicentra Eximia

Dichondra - Deep, loose, clod-free, smooth, well-drained soil is best for dichondra ground cover plantings. Dichondra ground cover plants require water on a deep and infrequent basis and needs to slightly dry out between waterings. Fertilize dichondra monthly with 1/2 - 1 lb of nitrogen per 1,000 square feet. Do not apply fertilizers when the dichonda plants are wet and after fertilizing irrigate the area to wash fertilizer off leaves and on to the soil. Many people use dichondra as a lawn alternative; therefore, you can mow your dichondra to the height you want to maintain it at. For the nicest appearance if dichondra, mow approximately every two weeks at a height of 1 1/2" - 2" during the summer months and you can mow as low as 3/4" during the winter months. Mowing at this lower height during the winter will encourage a dense, small leaved turf and help keep weed seed out. Just as with a lawn grass, do not cut too much dichondra off at one time. If you cut too much off at one time, it will cause the ground cover plants to look, "scalped." Bagging the clippings is typically better with dichondra if you are mowing only every two weeks. If you are mowing once a week, then mulching is most likely acceptable.

To purchase Dichondra seed, see: Dichondra

Eccremocarpus Scaber - Indoors, grow in well-drained, loam-based potting compost (No. 2) in full light. When in growth, water freely and apply a balanced liquid fertilizer monthly; water sparingly in winter. Outdoors, grow in fertile, well-drained soil in full sun. Provide support. Pruning group 11, in early spring.

To purchase Eccremocarpus Scaber seed, see: Eccremocarpus Scaber

Echinacea - Grow in deep, well-drained, humus-rich soil in full sun., although they will tolerate some shade. Cut back stems as the blooms fade to encourage further flower production.

To purchase Echinacea seed, see: Echinacea

Echium - Indoors, grow in loam-based potting compost (No. 3) in full light. Water freely when in growth, sparingly in winter. Outdoors, grow in moderately fertile, well-drained soil in full sun. In frost prone areas, protect perennial species in situ with horticultural fleece in winter.

To purchase Echium seed, see: Echium

Edelweiss - Grow in sharply drained, neutal to alkaline soil in full sun. Protect from excessive winter wet. In an alpine house, grow in loam-based potting compost (No. 1) with added grit or sharp sand.

To purchase Edelweiss seed, see: Edelweiss

Erigeron - Grow in fertile, well-drained soil that does not dry out in summer, in full sun with some midday shade. The smaller alpine species need sharp drainage and protection from excessive winter wet. Most taller species and hybrids need staking. Dead-head regularly to encourage further flowering. Cut back to ground level in autumn to maintain neat growth. Divide every 2 to 3 years in late spring, and discard the woody crowns.

To purchase Erigeron seed, see: Erigeron

Eryngium - Eryngiums have varying cultivation requirements. For ease of reference, they have been grouped as follows:

To purchase Eryngium seed, see: Eryngium

  1. Grow in dry, well-drained, poor to moderately fertile soil in full sun, with prodtection from winter wet.
  2. Grow in moist, well-drained, fertile soil in full sun.

 

Eucalyptus - Outdoors, grow in fertile, neutral to slightly acid soil that does not dry out, in full sun; shelter from cold, drying winds. Indoors, grow in loam-based potting compost (No. 3) with added sharp sand, in full light with good ventilation. In growth, water freely and apply a balanced liquid fertilizer monthly; water sparingly in winter. Pruning group 1 or, for the best display of juvenile foliage, pruning group 7; may need restrictive pruning when grown indoors.

To purchase Eucalyptus seed, see: Eucalyptus

Eupatorium - Indoors, grow in loam-based potting compost (No. 3) with added grit and humus, in full light. Provide good ventilation. When in full growth, water freely and apply a half-strength balanced liquid fertilizer when the flower heads appear. After flowering, reduce watering and keep just moist in winter. Outdoors, grow in any moist soil in full sun or partial shade. Pruning group 8; may require restrictive pruning when grown indoors.

To purchase Eupatorium seed, see: Eupatorium

Euphorbia - Growing requirements have been grouped as below. For pruning, apply pruning group 1 to trees, pruning group 6 to non-succulent shrubs.

To purchase Euphorbia seed, see: Euphorbia

  1. Well-drained, light soil in full sun.
  2. Moist, humus-rich soil in light dappled shade.
  3. Permanently moist soil in full sun.
  4. Grown indoors, grow in a mix of 3 parts loam-based potting compost (No. 2) and 1 part grit, in full light. Ventilate well. When in growth, water sparingly and apply a low nitrogen fertilizer monthly. Keep dry in winter. Grown outdoors, apply growing group 1.

Fairy Primrose - Most species grow in full sun or partial shade, in moderately fertile, moist but well-drained, humus-rich soil. If growing indoors as a houseplant, use a mix of 4 parts loam-based potting compost (No. 2) and 1 part each grit and leaf mould in bright filtered light. In growth, water freely and apply a half-strength balanced liquid fertilizer every week.

To purchase Fairy Primrose seed, see: Fairy Primrose - Crimson

Five Spot - Grow in fertilie, moist but well-draine soil in full sun or partial shade. May cease flowering in hot, dry weather if not watered.

To purchase Five Spot seed, see: Five Spot

Flax - Grow in light, moderately fertile, humus-rich, well-drained soil (sharply drained for alpines) in full sun. Protect from winter wet.

To purchase Flax seed, see: Flax

Foamflower - Grow ideally in cool, moist, humus-rich soil, alhtough they tolerate a wide range of soil conditions. Provide deep or partial shade. Protect from excessive winter wet.

To purchase Foamflower seed, see: Foamflower

Four O'Clock - Outdoors, grow in moderately fertile, well-drained soil in full sun, watering freely while in growth. Provide protection from excessive winter wet. In frost-prone areas, protect perennials with a mulch or lift tubers and store in frost-free conditions over winter, and then plant out in late spring. Indoors, grow in loam-based potting compost (No. 2), with added grit, in full light. In the growing season, water freely and apply a balanced liquid fertilizer monthly; keep dry in winter.

To purchase Four O'Clock seed, see: Four O'Clock

Foxglove - Grow in almost any soil, except very wet or very dry, although most prefer humus-rich soil in partial shade. Some species self-seed profusely, so, unless seedlings are required, dead-head after flowering.

To purchase Foxglove seed, see: Foxglove

Freesia - Indoors, grow in loam-based potting compost (No. 2) with added grit. Shade from sun and keep moist until established, then grow in full light with good ventilation, and water freely. Keep temperature below 55F. After flower buds appead, apply a balanced liquid fertilizer weekly. After flowering, gradually reduce water until dry, then store corms for re-planting in containers in late summer or autumn. Outdoors, plant freesia plants 3 inches deep, in moderately fertile, moist but well-drained soil in full sun. Plant in spring for summer flowering; in frost-free areas, plant in autumn for spring flowers.

To purchase Freesia seed, see: Freesia

Gaillardia - Grow in fertile, well-drained soil in full sun; poor soil is tolerted. Dead-head regularly. In cool climates, cut perennials back to about 6 inches in late summer, before frosts, to encourage new basal growth, which usually overwinters well.

To purchase Gaillardia seed, see: Gaillardia

Gaura - Grow in fertile, moist but well-drained soil in full sun, but drought and partial shade are tolerated.

To purchase Gaura seed, see: Gaura

Gayfeather - Grow in light, moderately fertile, moist but well-drained soil in full sun; L. spicita needs reliably moist soil. Liable to rot in wet winters in heavy soils.

To purchase Gayfeather seed, see: Gayfeather

Gazania - Indoors, grow in loam-based potting compost (No. 1), with added sharp sand, in full light. Water freely when in growth; keep just moist in winter. Outdoors, grow in light, sandy, well-drained soil in full sun. Dead-head to prolong flowering.

To purchase Gazania seed, see: Gazania

Geranium - Indoors, grow in loamless or loam-based potting compost (No. 2) in full light, with shade from hot sun and good ventilation. Water moderately during growth; apply a balanced liquid fertilizer every 10 - 14 days in spring and early summer, and a high-potash fertilizer when in flower. Water sparingly in winter. If kept at 45 - 50F, plants may flower over winter. Otherwise, but back by up to two-thirds and keep almost dry. Outdoors, grow in fertile, neutral to alkaline, well-drained soil. Most prefer full sun; regal cultivars prefer partial shade, and zonals tolerate some shade. Lift bedding plants in autumn and overwinter in dry, frost-free conditions; cut back top-growth by one-third and repot in late winter as new growth resumes. Dead-head all pelargoniums regularly.

To purchase Geranium seed, see: Geranium

Gerbera - Indoors, grow in loam-based potting compost (No. 2) in bright filtered light. In the growing season, water freely and apply a balanced liquid fertilizer every 4 weeks. Keep moist in winter. Pot on annually in spring. Outdoors, grow in moderately fertile, well-drained soil in full sun.

To purchase Gerbera seed, see: Gerbera - Mix

Geum - Grow in fertile, well-drained soil in full sun. Avoid soil that is waterlogged in winter. Dead-head regularly to encourage flowering in to winter.

To purchase Geum seed, see: Geum

Gilia - Grow in light, well-drained soil in full sun.

To purchase Gilia seed, see: Gilia

Globe Thistle - Best grown in poor, well-drained soil in full sun, but tolerant of almost any soil in sun or partial shade. Dead-head to prevent self-seeding.

To purchase Globe Thistle seed, see: Globe Thistle Flower Seed

Gloxinia - Indoors, grow in loamless potting compost in bright filtered or indirect light. Most are best maintained with high humidity at 64 - 75F. In the growing season, water moderately and apply a half-strength high-potash fertilizer every two weeks. Dry off tubers in autumn and keep completely dry in winter. Start into growth in early spring in shallow trays of peat; pot up individually into 3 1/2 - 4 inch containers when young shoots anre 2 - 3 inches long. Outdoors, grow in moist but well-drained, humus-rich, acid to neutral soil in light dappled or partial shade.

To purchase Gloxinia seed, see: Gloxinia

Godetia - Grow in moderately fertile, moist but well-drained, slightly acid soil in sun or partial shade. Very fertile soil encourages growth of foliage at the expense of the flowers. They dislike hot, humid conditions.

To purchase Godetia seed, see: Godetia

Gomphrena - Grow in moderately fertile, well-drained soil in full sun.

To purchase Gomphrena seed, see: Gomphrena

Gypsophila - Grow in deep, light, preferably alkaline, sharply drained soil in full sun. Most dislike winter wet.

To purchase Gypsophila seed, see: Gypsophila

Helenium - Grow in any fertile, moist but-well drained soil in full sun. Provide support for taller species and cultivars. Dead-head to prolong flowering. Divide every 2 - 3 years to maintain vigor.

To purchase Helenium seed, see: Helenium

Helichrysum - Grow in well-drained, poor to moderately fertile, neutral to alkaline soil in full sun. Low-growing alpines need gritty, sharply drained soil. Protect from excessive winter wet and cold, drying winds. Pruning group 10, in spring, for larger subshrubs and shrubs.

To purchase Helichrysum seed, see: Helichrysum

Heliopsis - Grow in moderately fertile, humus-rich, moist but well-drained soil in full sun. Divide every 2 to 3 years to maintain vigor. Taller species and cultivars may need support.

To purchase Heliopsis seed, see: Heliopsis - Summer Sun

Heliotropium - Indoors, grow in loamless or loam-based potting compost (No 3) in full light with shade from hot sun; provide moderate humidity. In the growing season, water moderately and apply a balanced liquid fertilizer monthly; keep just moist in winter. Outdoors, grow in any fertile, moist but well-drained soil in full sun.

To purchase Heliotropium seed, see: Heliotropium - Marine

Helipterum - When large enough to handle, transplant the seedlings to boxes or 3 inch pots and grow on in cooler conditions. When well grown, gradually acclimatise to outdoor conditions for 10-15 days and plant out during May after all risk of frost has passed 12 inches apart in full sun and well drained soil.

To purchase Helipterum seed, see: Helipterum

Heuchera - Grow in any fertile, moist but well-drained, neutral soil in sun or partial shade; full shade may be tolerated in a moist site. The woody rootstock tends to push upwards, so mulch annually; eventually lift and replant in late summer or early autumn, with just the crown above the soil surface, or replace with new plants.

To purchase Heuchera seed, see: Heuchera

Hibiscus - Indoors, grow in loamless or loam-based potting compost (No. 2) in bright filtered light. Provide moderate humidity and good ventilation. IN the growing season, water freely and apply a balanced liquid fertilizer monthly; water sparingly in winter. Outdoors, grow in humus-rich, moist but well-drained, neutral to slightly alkaline soil in full sun. Hibiscus need long, hot summers to flower well. Those grown at the limits of their hardiness level need mulching in winter. Pruning group 1 for deciduous hibiscus, pruning group 9 f or evergreens; however, little or no pruning is usually necessary.

To purchase Hibiscus seed, see: Hibiscus

Hollyhock - Grow in moderately fertile, well-drained soil in full sun. May require staking in exposed sites. Grow as annuals or biennials to limit the spread of hollyhock rust. Perennials are often short-lived, but will self-seed.

To purchase Hollyhock seed, see: Hollyhock

Horehound - Grow in poor, well-drained soil in full sun. Provide shelter from cold, drying winds and protection from excessive winter wet.

To purchase Horehound seed, see: Horehound

Hosta - Grow in fertile, moist but well-drained soil with shelter from cold, drying winds. Most hostas prefer a site in full or partial shade (fewer flowers will produce in full shade), but yellow-leaved hostas color better in a sunny position with some midday shade. Hostas will not tolerate drought and should be mulched annually in spring to conserve moisture.

To purchase Hosta seed, see: Hosta

Hyacinth Bean - Indoors, grow in loam-based potting compost (No. 2) in full light. When in growth, water freely and appy a balanced liquid fertilizer every 10 - 14 days until flowering; water sparingly in winter. Outdoors, grow in any well-drained soil in full sun (for the best crop of beans, water and fertilize as for plants grown indoors). Provide support of netting or trellis. Pruning group 11, in spring.

To purchase Hyacinth Bean seed, see: Hyacinth Bean

Hypericum - Grow in moderately fertile, moist but well-drained soil, the larger species in sun or partial shade, the dwarf species in full sun and in sharply drained soil. Protect small rock garden species from excessie winter wet; shelter evergreen hypericums from cold, drying winds. Pruning group 1; or pruning group 6 for deciduous species, and pruning group 8 for evergreens. Cut H. calycinum to ground level in spring.

To purchase Hypericum seed, see: Hypericum - Cerastoides

Hypoestes - Indoors, grow in loam-based potting compost (No. 2) in bright filtered light, with moderate to high humidity. Water freely in growth, sparingly in winter. Apply a balanced liquid fertilizer every 2 to 3 weeks in summer. Outdoors, grow in moist but well-drained, moderately fertile, humus-rich soil in partial shade, sheltered from cold winds. Pinch out the growing tips to promote a bushy habit.

To purchase Hypoestes seed, see: Hypoestes - Pink Polka Dot

Ice Plant - Indoors, grow in standard cactus compost in full light, with good but draught-free ventilation. In growth, water moderately, applying fertilizer every 3 weeks; keep dry at other times. Outdoors, grow in sharply drained soil in a sheltered site in full sun. See "Succulents" for more information.

To purchase Ice Plant seed, see: Ice Plant

Illinois Bundleflower - Keep soil moderately moist during germination and when plant matures. The leaves close-up at night, and often close partially during hot, sunny days. During the evening they position themselves in the direction of the sun to receive more light. Grow in full sun.Used in meadows, roadsides, and tall grass prairie plantings. Good for xeriscaping. Produces fruit in the form of dark-brown clusters of pods. Due to it being high in protein, it is readily eaten by livestock and wildlife. Fixes high amounts of nitrogen in the soil and can rejuvenate worn-out soil.

To purchase Illinois Bundleflower seed, see: Illinois Bundleflower

Impatiens - Indoors, grow in loamless or loam-based potting compost (No. 2) in full to bright filtered light, with moderate to high humidity. During the growing season, water moderately and apply a balanced liquid fertilizer monthly. Water sparingly in winter. Outdoors, grow in humus-rich, moist but well-drained soil in partial shade, with shelter from wind.

To purchase Impatiens seed, see: Impatiens

Incarvillea - Grow in fertile, moist but well-drained soil in full sun, with some shade in summer. Provide protection from excessive winter wet. Plant crowns 3 to 4 inches deep; mulch in areas where ground remains frozen for long periods. Avoid damaging thick, fleshy roots.

To purchase Incarvillea seed, see: Incarvillea Delavayi

Iris - All irises are best planted in late summer or early autumn. Outdoors, grow in well-drained, moderately fertile, neutral or slighty acid or alkaline soil in full sun to light dappled shade. Most irises need long, hot summers to thrive and flower well. Grow irises that require protection from rain or frost indoors.

To purchase Iris seed, see: Iris Missouriensis

Rhizomatous Irises: - Bearded irises have surface rhizomes which should be partially exposed, or thinly covered with soil in hot climates. Plant rhizomes singly or in groups of 3 with the fans outermost 6 - 12 inches apart, depending on the size. Irises should not be shaded by other plants; many do best in a border on their own. Feed or top-dress with a low nitrogen fertilizer when planting, and again in early spring. Avoid applying high-nitrogen fertilizers to the surface or mulching with organic matter, which may encourage rhizome rot. After 3 - 5 years, when clumps become congested or lose vitality, divide and replant active rhizomes in fresh soil.

Bulbous Irisis - Plant Xiphium nad Junu bulbs 4 - 6 inches apart, depending on the size. Plant Reticulata bulbs 2 - 4 inches apart. Plant all bulbs at a depth twice the height of the bulbs. After flowering, feed with a high potash fertilizer to encourage large bulbs to form. Lift and separate bulbs in early autumn.

Irish Moss - Grow in poor to moderately fertile, acid to neutral, moist but well-drained soil in full sun with some midday shade. S. boydii requires very sharply drained, poor soil, and tolerate some shade. In an alpine house, grow in 3 parts grit or sharp sand and 1 part peat or leaf mould. Dislikes hot, dry conditions.

To purchase Irish Moss seed, see: Irish Moss

Ironweed - Grow in any light, moderately fertile, moist soil in full sun or partial shade. Dead-head regularly.

To purchase Ironweed seed, see: Ironweed

Jerusalem Cherry - Indoors, grow in loam-based potting compost (No.2) in full light with shade from hot sun, or in bright indirect light. In growth, water freely, apply a balanced liquid fertlizer monthly, mist daily, and maintain moderate humidity. Apply a high-potash liquid fertilizer every 2 or 3 weeks until fruit ripens. Water sparingly when dormant. Outdoors, grow in moderately fertile, moist but well-drained, neutral to slightly alkaline soil in full sun. Support plants and tie in young shoots regularly. Pruning group 9 for shrubs; pruning group 12 for climbers, after flowering.

To purchase Jerusalem Cherry seed, see: Jerusalem Cherry

Jupiter's Beard - Grow in well-drained, poor to moderately fertile, preferably chalk or lime soil in full sun. Dead-head regularly and replace every 3 or 4 years.

To purchase Jupiter's Beard seed, see: Jupiter's Beard

Kenilworth Ivy - Grow in poor to moderately fertile, well-drained soil in partial shade.

To purchase Kenilworth Ivy seed, see: Kenilworth Ivy

Lace Flower - Lace Flower enjoys a sheltered, sunny position in the garden, and they are low-maintenance and carefree. Grow in full sun to partial shade. Soil should be moist, but welll-drained, fertile, pH 6.6 - 7.3.

To purchase Lace Flower seed, see: Lace Flower

Lacy Phacelia - Grow annuals in fertile, well-drained soil in full sun. Outdoors, grow P. sericea in gritty, sharply drained soil in full sun. Protect from winter wet; in an alpine house, grow in a mix of equal parts loam, leaf mould, and grit.

To purchase Lacy Phacelia seed, see: Lacy Phacelia

Lady's Mantle - Grow in any moist, humus-rich soil in sun or partial shade. Dead-head A. mollis soon after flowering, as it self-seeds readily.

To purchase Lady's Mantle seed, see: Lady's Mantle

Lamb's Ear - Outdoors, grow in well-drained, moderately fertile soil in full sun: S. macrantha, S. officinalis, and S. Sylvatica tolerate partial shade. Grow rock garden species in sharply drained, gritty soil in a sunny site; protect from excessive winter wet. In an alpine house, grow in loam-based potting compost (No. 2) with added grit, in full light.

To purchase Lamb's Ear seed, see: Lamb's Ear

Larkspur - Grow in fertile, well-drained soil in full sun, with shelter from strong winds. Except for the dwarf perennials, most delphiniums need staking: the low-growing cultivars with twiggy, brushwood support; the taller, larger flowered ones with stout canes. Insert supports no later than midspring, or when the plants reach 12 inches high. To ensure good quality flower spikes, thin shoots when 3 inches high; leave a minimum of 2 or 3 shoots on young plants and 5 - 7strong shoots on well-established ones. In growth, water all plants freely, applying a balanced liquid fertilizer every 2 - 3 weeks. Dead-head by cutting spent flower spikes back to small, flowering sideshoots. Cut all growth to ground level after it has withered in autumn.

To purchase Larkspur seed, see: Larkspur

Lavender - In warm areas, lavender are suitable for a variety of situations, from a shrub border to a rock garden, and are useful for edging and as a low hedge. In frost-prone climates, the half-hardy species should be grown at the base of a warm, sunny wall, or in a container which can be overwintered in a cool greenhouse or conservatory. If grown from drying, cut the flowerheads before they are fully open. Grow in moderately fertile, well-drained soil in full sun. Pruning group 10, in early or mid-spring.

To purchase Lavender seed, see: Lavender

Leadplant - Grow in light, sandy, well-drained soil in sun or partial shade. Pruning group 6.

To purchase Leadplant seed, see: Leadplant

Legousia - Grow in light, well-drained soil in full sun or partial shade.

To purchase Legousia seed, see: Legousia Blue

Leopard's Bane - Grow in moist, humus-rich soil in partial or dappled shade. D. orientale and its cultivars are susceptible to root rot in wet areas, and require moist but well-drained, reasonably fertile, preferably sandy soil in partial shade.

To purchase Leopard's Bane seed, see: Leopard's Bane

Leptosiphon - Grow in humus-rich, well-drained soil in full sun.

To purchase Leptosiphon seed, see: Leptosiphon Mix

Lespedeza - Grow in light, moderately fertile, well-drained soil in full sun. Pruning group 6 for shrubs; treat as perennials in very cold areas, where shrubby species may be cut to the ground by frost in winter.

To purchase Lespedeza seed, see: Lespedeza Capitata

Limnanthes - Grow in fertile, moist but well-drained soil in full sun.

To purchase Limnanthes seed, see: Limnanthes Douglasii

Linaria - Grow in moderately fertile, light, well-drained, preferably sandy soil, in full sun.

To purchase Linaria seed, see: Linaria Alpina

Lisianthus - Indoors, grow in loam-based potting compost (No. 2) in full light, with bright filtered light when in bloom. Ventilate well. In full growth, water freely and apply a balanced liquid fertilizer every 2 - 3 weeks; water sparingly in winter. Outdoors, grow in well-drained, neutral to alkaline soil in full sun. Support stems.

To purchase Lisianthus seed, see: Lisianthus

Livingstone Daisy - Grow in well-drained, preferably low-fertility, sandy soil in full sun. Dead-head to prolong flowering.

To purchase Livingstone Daisy seed, see: Livingstone Daisy

Lobelia - Grow in deep, fertile, reliably moist soin in full sun or partial shade. To improve the flowering performance of annuals, apply a balanced liquid fertilizer every two weeks in spring and early summer, then a nitrogen-free fertilizer every 2 weeks from midsummer onwards. In frost-prone areas, protect half-hardy perennials with a dry winter mulch. Grow aquatics in baskets of acid soil at the margins of a pool or stream.

To purchase Lobelia seed, see: Lobelia

Lupine - Grow in moderately fertile, light and slightly acid, well-drained, sandy soil in full sun or partial shade. In an alpine house, grow in equaly parts loam, leaf mould, and grit.

To purchase Lupine seed, see: Lupine

Lychnis - Grow in any moderately fertile, well-drained soil in full sun or partial shade. L. chalcedonica, L. haageana, and L. viscaria prefer moist, fertile soil; grey-leaved species produce their best leaf color in dry soil in full sun. Dead-head to prolong flowering.

To purchase Lychnis seed, see: Lychnis

Malope - Grow in moderately fertile, moist, but well-drained soil in full sun, although partial shade is tolerated. Dead-head to prolong flowering. Give brushwood support in exposed sites.

To purchase Malope seed, see: Malope Mix

Marguerite Daisy - Grow in moderately fertile, well-drained, sandy or gravelly soil in full sun. A. marschalliana prefers partial shade with protection from winter wet. A. sancti-johannis and A. tinctoria are often short-lived; to increase their longevity, cut back hard after flowering to encourage the development of strong, overwintering, basal growth.

To purchase Marguerite Daisy seed, see: Marguerite Daisy - Orange

Marigold - Grow in moderately fertile, well-drained soil in full sun. Dead-head to prolong flowering and water freely during dry seasons. The densely double flower heads of the African marigolds tend to rot in wet seasons. In containers, use a loam-based potting compost (No. 2); during the growing season, water freely and apply a balanced liquid fertilizer weekly.

To purchase Marigold seed, see: Marigold

Mask Flower - Indoors, grow in loam-based potting compost (No. 2) in full light with a minimum of 50F. Water moderately. Outdoors, grow in any fertile, well-drained soil in full sun.

To purchase Mask Flower seed, see: Mask Flower

Melampodium - The plants are free from insect and pest problems, but can become prey to powdery mildew in very humid, moist climates, so make sure they have good air circulation. Grow in full sun to partial shade in well-drained soil.

To purchase Melampodium seed, see: Melampodium Derby

Mentzelia - Grow in moderately fertile, well-drained soil in a warm, sheltered site in full sun. Water freely in the growing season for repeat flowering. After the first flush of bloom, cut annuals back to 2 inches.

To purchase Mentzelia seed, see: Mentzelia Lindleyi

Mexican Sunflower - Grow in well-drained, moderately fertile soil in full sun, with shelter from strong winds. Support tall cultivars, water in dry weather, and dead-head to prolong flowering. They grow poorly in cool, overcast weather.

To purchase Mexican Sunflower seed, see: Mexican Sunflower

Mignonette - Grow in well-drained, moderately fertile, preferably alkaline soil in full sun or partial shade. Dead-head to prolong flowering.

To purchase Mignonette seed, see: Mignonette

Milkweed - Indoors, grow in loam-based potting compost A(No. 2) th additional leaf mould, in full light. In the growing season, water freely and apply a balanced liquid fertilizer every 5 to 6 weeks; reduce water after flowering and keep almost dry in winter. Outdoors, grow in fertile, well-drained, loamy soil in full sun, although A. incarnata and A. speciosa prefer more moisture and will thrive near a pond or stream. Grow A. hallii and A. syriaca in wildflower garden, as they spread by underground suckers and are unsuitable for a border.

To purchase Milkweed seed, see: Milkweed

Mimosa - Indoors, grow in loam-based potting compost (No. 2) in full light, with shade from hot sun. In the growing season, water moderately and apply a balanced liquid fertilizer monthly; water sparingly in winter. Outdoors, grow in moderately fertile, well-drained soil in full sun, although they will tolerate dappled shade. Pruning group 1.

To purchase Mimosa seed, see: Mimosa Pudica

Mimulus - Outdoors, grow most species in fertile, humus-rich, very moist soil in full sun or light dapple shade. Indoors, grow in loam-based potting compost (No. 2) in full light, with shade from hot sun and good ventilation. In the growing season, water freely and apply a balanced liquid fertilizer monthly; keep moist in winter. Monkey flowers are often short-lived. Pruning group 9 for shrubs.

To purchase Mimulus seed, see: Mimulus

Mina Lobata - Grow in sandy, well drained soil, pH 5.5 - 7.5. Needs full sun for best growth.

To purchase Mina Lobata seed, see: Mina Lobata

Monarda - Grow in moderately fertile, humus-rich, moist but well-drained soil in full sun or light dappled shade. Protect from excessive winter wet; do not allow to dry out in summer.

To purchase Monarda seed, see: Monarda Citriodora - Lemon Bee Balm

Money Plant - Grow in fertile, moist but well-drained soil in full sun or partial shade.

To purchase Money Plant seed, see: Money Plant

Monkshood - Best grown in cool, moist, fertile soil in partial shade, but will tolerate moist soils and full sun. Taller aconites require staking.

To purchase Monkshood seed, see: Monkshood

Moonflower - Indoors, grow in loam-based potting compost (No. 2) in full light, with shade from the hottest sun. During growth, water freely and apply a balanced liquid fertilizer monthly. Water sparingly in winter. Support climbers and trailing species. Outdoors, grow in moderately fertile, well-drained soil in full sun. Shelter from cold, drying winds. Pruning group 11 for climbing species, in spring.

To purchase Moonflower seed, see: Moonflower Flower Seed

Morning Glory - Indoors, grow in loam-based potting compost (No. 2) in full light, with shade from the hottest sun. During growth, water freely and apply a balanced liquid fertilizer monthly. Water sparingly in winter. Support climbers and trailing species. Outdoors, grow in moderately fertile, well-drained soil in full sun. Shelter from cold, drying winds. Pruning group 11 for climbing species, in spring.

To purchase Morning Glory seed, see: Morning Glory

Moss Rose - Outdoors, grow in poor, sandy, well-drained soil in full sun.

To purchase Moss Rose seed, see: Moss Rose

Myosotis - Grow in moderately fertile or poor, moist but well-drained soil in full sun, with some midday shade, or in partial shade. Dwarf perennials may become coarse in rich soils, in an alpine house, grow in a mix of equal parts loam, leaf mold and grit. Grow M. scorpioides in wet soil, or in an aquatic planting basket as a shallow-water marginal, at a maximum depth of 4 inches.

To purchase Myosotis seed, see: Forget-me-not

Nasturtium - Grow in moist but well-drained, moderately fertile soil in full sun. T. majus and its hybrids and cultivars flower best in poorer soils; T. speciosum prefers moist, humus-rich, neutral to acid soil in full sun or partial shade, but with roots and lower stems in cool shade. Support the climbing stems. In frost-prone areas, lift the tubers of T. tuberosum and store in a frost-free place until the following spring. Indoors, grow in loam-based potting compost (No. 2), with added fine grit, in full light with shade from hot sun. Plant those with running rootstocks directly into a border; tuberous tropaelolums need deep containers. During growth, water freely and apply a balanced liquid fertilizer monthly; reduce water as leaves wither and keep barely moist when dormant. T. azureum and T. tricolorum are borth dormant in winter; start into growth in early autumn, and water sparingly in autumn and winter.

To purchase Nasturtium seed, see: Nasturtium

Nemesia - Grow in moist, but well-drained, moderately fertile, slightly acidic soil in full sun. Water annuals freely in dry weather to maintain flower production. Indoors, grow in loam-based potting compost (No. 2) in full light. Water moderately during growth. Pinch out growing tips to promote bushiness.

To purchase Nemesia seed, see: Nemesia

Nicotiana - Grow in fertile, moist but well-drained soil in full sun or partial shade. Stake tall plants in open positions. Although half-hardy, N. alata and N. sylvestris can be overwintered outdoors where temperatures only occasionally fall to 23F; they will resprout from rootstocks the following spring. Provide a dry winter mulch. Pruning group 6 for shrubs.

To purchase Nicotiana seed, see: Nicotiana

Nierembergia - Outdoors, grow in a sheltered site in moist but well-drained soil in full sun. N. repens prefers dry, sandy soils. Indoors, grow in loam-based potting compost (No. 1) in full light. During growth, water moderately and apply a balanced liquid fertilizer monthly. Water sparingly in winter.

To purchase Nierembergia seed, see: Nierembergia

Nigella - Grow in any well-drained soil in full sun.

To purchase Nigella seed, see: Nigella

Nolana - Outdoors, grow in any moderately fertile soil in full sun. Indoors, grow in loam-based potting compost (No. 2) in full light. Water moderately during the growing season.

To purchase Nolana seed, see: Nolana

Obedient Plant - Grow in fertile, reliably moist soil in full sun or partial shade.

To purchase Obedient Plant seed, see: Obedient Plant

Ohio Spiderwort - Indoors, grow in loamless or loam-based potting compost (No. 2) in bright filtered light. When in active growth, water moderately and apply a balanced liquid fertilizer every 4 weeks; water sparingly in winter. Pinch growing tips to encourage bushiness, and remove plain green foliage from variegated cultivars. Pot on each spring. Outdoors, grow in moist, fertile soil in full sun or partial shade. After flowering, cut back flowered stems to prevent seeding and to encourage further flowers.

To purchase Ohio Spiderwort seed, see: Ohio Spiderwort

Ornamental Cabbage - Grow in fertile, well-drained, preferably lime-rich (alkaline) soil in full sun.

To purchase Ornamental Cabbage seed, see: Ornamental Cabbage

Ornamental Eggplant - Indoors, grow in loam-based potting compost (No. 2) in full light with shade from hot sun, or in bright indirect light. In growth, water freely, apply a balanced liquid fertilizer monthly, mist daily, and maintain moderately humidity. Apply a high-potash liquid fertilizer every 2 or 3 weeks until fruit ripens. Water sparingly when dormant. Outdoors, grow in moderately fertile, moist but well-drained, neutral to slighly alkaline soil in full sun. Support plants and tie in young shoots regulary. Pruning group 9 for shrubs; pruning group 12 for climbers, after flowering.

To purchase Ornamental Eggplant seed, see: Ornamental Eggplant

Ornamental Kale - Grow in fertile, well-drained, preferably lime-rich (alkaline) soil in full sun.

To purchase Ornamental Kale seed, see: Ornamental Kale

Ornamental Pepper - Indoors, grow in loam-based potting compost (No. 2) in bright filtered light. When in growth, water freely and apply a balanced liquid fertilizer every 10 days until fruit begins to color. Provide tall cultivars with support. In summer, maintain high humidity and temperatures 70 - 77F. Mist flowers daily with water to encourage fruiting. Outdoors, grow in fertile, well-drained soil enriched with garden compost or manure in full sun. Pinch out growing tips of young plants to promote branching.

To purchase Ornamental Pepper seed, see: Ornamental Pepper Seed

Ornamental Tomato - Grow in full sun in rich, well drained soil with pH ranging from 6.0 - 6.8.

To purchase Ornamental Tomato seed, see: Ornamental Tomato

Osteospermum - Grow in light, moderately fertile, well-drained soil in a warm, sheltered site in full sun. Dead-head regularly to prolong flowering. In frost-prone climates, propagate annually and overwinter plants in frost-free conditions.

To purchase Osteospermum seed, see: Osteospermum - Ecklonis

Pansy - Grow in humus-rich, fertile, moist but well-drained soil in full sun or partial shade. In a rock garden, grow in poor to moderately fertile, gritty, sharply drained soil in full sun or partial shade; protect from winter wet. In an alpine house, use a mix of equal parts loam, leaf mould, and grit or tufa chips. Dead-head to prolong flowering. After flowering, cut back vigorous plants, especially V. cornuta, to keep compact.

To purchase Pansy seed, see: Pansy

Partridge Pea - Indoors, grow in loam-based potting compost (No. 3) in full light. In the growing season, water freely and apply a balanced liquid fertilizer monthly. Top-dress or pot on in early spring. Outdoors, grow in deep, well-drained, moderately fertile soil in full sun. Pruning group 1; plants grown indoors need restrictive pruning after flowering.

To purchase Partridge Pea seed, see: Partridge Pea

Passion Flower - Indoors, plant in a greenhouse border or in large tubs of loam-based potting compost (No. 3) in full light, with shade from hot sun. Water freely when in growth, sparingly in winter. Top-dress annually in spring. Outdoors, grow in moderately fertile, moist but well-drained soil in full sun or partial shade, with shelther from cold, drying winds. Pruning group 11 or 12, if necessary, in early spring.

To purchase Passion Flower seed, see: Passion Flower

Pennie Black - Grow in fertile, moist but well-drained soil in full sun or partial shade. May cease flowering in hot, dry weather if not watered.

To purchase Pennie Black seed, see: Pennie Black

Pennyroyal - Grow in poor, moist soil in full sun. Restrict spread of invasive species by planting in deep containers and plunging in the soil, or by growing in small beds to restrict root run.

To purchase Pennyroyal seed, see: Pennyroyal Flower

Penstemon - Grow border perennials in fertile, well-drained soil in full sun or partial shade; grow shrubby and dwarf species in poor to moderately fertile, very gritty, sharply drained soil in full sun. In frost-prone areas, protect border perennials with a dry winter mulch. Unless seed is needed, dead-head after flowering to maintain vigor.

To purchase Penstemon seed, see: Penstemon

Peony - Grow in deep, fertile, well-drained soil in full sun, exept P. alpinum and its cultivars, which require very sharply drained soil.

To purchase Peony seed, see: Peony

Perilla - Grow in fertile, moist but well-drained soil in full sun or partial shade.

To purchase Perilla seed, see: Perilla Frutescens

Periwinkle - Grow in any but very dry soil, in full sun (for best flowering) or partial shade. To restrict growth, cut back hard in early spring.

To purchase Periwinkle seed, see: Periwinkle

Petunia - Grandiflora petunias have very large flowers, generally up to 4 inches across. Many are susceptible to rain damage, and are best grown in sheltered hanging baskets and containers. Multiflora petunias are bushier than Grandiflora petunias, with smaller flowers, up to 2 inches across, produced in greater quantity. They are usually more tolerate of wet weather, and are ideal for summer bedding in a mixed border; individual plants may carpet an areas up to 3 feet across. Indoors, grow in loam-based potting compost (No. 1) in full light. When in growth, water freely and apply a highi-potassium fertilizer every two weeks. Outdoors, grow in light, well-drained soil in full sun, sheltered from wind. Dead-head to prolong flowering.

To purchase Petunia seed, see: Petunia

Pheasant's Eye - Adonis species have varying growing requirements. For ease of reference, these have been divided into the following groups:

To purchase Pheasant's Eye seed, see: Pheasant's Eye

  1. Humus-rich, cool, moist, light, acid soil in full shade.
  2. Moist but well-drained, humus-rich soil in partial shde.
  3. Well-drained moderately fertile, alkaline soil in full sun.

 

Phlox - Grow annuals in any fertile, well-drained soil in full sun. Perennials and shrubs have varying needs, which may be grouped as set out below. Cut back all tall herbaceous species to the ground in autumn. Dead-head P. maculata and P. Paniculata to prolong flowering. Stake tall cultivars.

To purchase Phlox seed, see: Phlox

  1. Grow in fertile, moist soil in full sun or partial shade.
  2. Grow in humus-rich, fertile, moist but well-drained soil in partial shade.
  3. Grow in well-drained fertile soil in full sun, or in dappled shade in low rainfall areas.
  4. Grow in gritty, sharply drained, poor to moderately fertile soil in full sun. In an alpine house, grow in a mix of equal parts loam, leaf mould, and sharp sand.

 

Pimpernel - Indoors, grow in gritty, loam-based potting compost (No. 1) in full light. Outdoors, grow in fertile, moist but well-drained soil in full sun Overwinter young plants in a cool greenhouse and plant out when danger of frost has passed. Pimpernels are often short-lived, so propagate regularly.

To purchase Pimpernel seed, see: Pimpernel - Blue

Plantain - Indoors, grow in 4 parts pet or leaf mould to 1 part grit or sharp sand. Outdoors, grow in preferably neutral to acid, moderately fertile, sharply drained soil in full sun. Protect from winter wet.

To purchase Plantain seed, see: Plantain - Common

Polemonium - Grow tall species in any fertile, well-drained but moist soil, preferably in full sun or partial shade. Grow small species in gritty, sharply drained soil in full sun with some midday shade. Dead-head regularly.

To purchase Polemonium seed, see: Polemonium

Polygonum - Grow in full sun or partial shade. Grows in a variety of soil types from sandy loams to clay.

To purchase Polygonum seed, see: Polygonum Capitatum

Poppy - Grow in deep, fertile, well-drained soil in full sun, except P. alpinum and its cultivars, which require very sharply drained soil. California poppies can grow in poor, well-drained soil in full sun. Meconopsis poppies grow in humus-rich, leafy, moist but well-drained, neutral to slightly acidic soil, open enough to prevent stagnation and rot in winter; site in partial shade with shelter from cold, drying winds. Mulch generously, and water in dry spells in summer. Short-lived perennials, e.g.M. betonicifolia, are less likely to be monocarpic in moist conditions, and its flowering is prevented until several crowns have been formed.

To purchase Poppy seed, see: Poppy

Prairie Clover - Grow in well-drained, sandy soil in full sun.

To purchase Prairie Clover seed, see: Prairie Clover - Purple

Primrose - Grow in poor to moderately fertile, well-drained, even stony soil in full sun. Protect rock garden plants and O. speciosa from excessive winter wet.

To purchase Primrose seed, see: Primrose

Prunella - Grow in any soil in full sun or partial shade. Dead-head to prevent self-seeding.

To purchase Prunella seed, see: Prunella

Purple Loosestrife - Grow in any (preferably fertile), moist soil in full sun. Remove flowered stems to prevent self-seeding.

To purchase Purple Loosestrife seed, see: Purple Loosestrife

Ranunculus - Easily grown in sun or partial shade, in fertile, moist but well-drained soil. Grow in a border or rock garden.

To purchase Ranunculus seed, see: Ranunculus

Ratibida - Grow in dry, well-drained, neutral to slighly alkaline, moderately fertile soil in full sun. Ratibidas are drought resistant.

To purchase Ratibida seed, see: Ratibida

Red Hot Poker - Grow in deep, fertile, humus-rich, moist but well-drained, preferably sandy soil, in full sun or partial shade. Mulch young plants with straw or leaves for the first winter.

To purchase Red Hot Poker seed, see: Red Hot Poker - Uvaria Mix

Rehmannia - Indoors, grow in loam-based potting compost (No. 2) in bright filtered light. When in growth, water freely and apply a balanced liquid fertilizer monthly; keep just moist in winter. Outdoors, grow in well-drained, moderately fertile, humus-rich soil in a sheltered site in full sun. In regions where winters are mild and damp, lift in autumn, pot up, and overwinter in a cool, dry, frost-free place.

To purchase Rehmannia seed, see: Rehmannia Angulata

Rhodochiton - Indoors, grow in loam-based potting compost (No. 2) in full light with shade form hot sun. When in growth, water freely and apply a balanced liquid fertilizer montly; keep just moist in winter. Pot on in spring. Outdoors, grow in fertile, humus-rich, moist but well-drained soil in full sun.

To purchase Rhodochiton seed, see: Rhodochiton Atrosanguineus

Rock Rose - Grow in moderately fertile, well-drained, neutral to alkaline soil in full sun. Pruning group 10, after flowering.

To purchase Rock Rose seed, see: Rock Rose

Rosa Chinensis - Well-drained soil, rich in organic matter, pH 6.0 - 6.9 in full sun. For best flowering, apply a balanced liquid fertilizer and mulch in late winter or early spring. In spring and summer, apply a balanced liquid fertilizer every three weeks.

To purchase Rosa Chinensis seed, see: Rosa Chinensis

Rose Mallow - Grow in ideally light, moderately fertile, well-drained soil in full sun. Shelter from cold drying winds in frost-prone areas. Pruning group 6.

To purchase Rose Mallow seed, see: Rose Mallow

Rudbeckia - Grow in moderately fertile, preferably heavy but well-drained soil that does not dry out, in full sun or partial shade.

To purchase Rudbeckia seed, see: Rudbeckia

Safflower - Grow in any light, well-drained soil in full sun.

To purchase Safflower seed, see: Safflower

Sage - Indoors, grow in well-drained, loamless or loam-based potting compost (No. 2 or 3) in full light with shade from hot sun. While in growth, water freely and apply a balanced liquid fertilizer monthly; water sparingly in winter. Maintain low to moderate humidity. Outdoors, grow in light, moderately fertile, humus-rich, moist but well-drained soil in full sun to light dappled shade. Small species with densely hairy or woolly leaves need sharp drainage and full sun. Protect these and frost-hardy species from excessive winter wet, and shelter from cold, drying winds. Pruning group 9, in spring.

To purchase Sage seed, see: Sage - Blue Wildflower

Salpiglossis - Indoors, grow in loamless or loam-based potting compost (No. 2) in full light with shade from hot sun. During the growing season, maintain low to moderate humidity, water moderately, and apply a balanced liquid fertilizer every 2 weeks. Keep just moist in winter. Overwinter at 61 - 64F. Outdoors, grow in moderately fertile, humus-rich, moist but well-drained soil in full sun; shelter from cold, drying winds. Dead-head to prolong flowering and maintain flower size. Provide brushwood support if grown in a slightly exposed site.

To purchase Salpiglossis seed, see: Salpiglossis

Salvia - Indoors, grow in well-drained, loamless or loam-based potting compost (No. 2 or 3) in full light with shade from hot sun. While in growth, water freely and apply a balanced liquid fertilizer monthly; water sparingly in winter. Maintain low to moderate humidity. Outdoors, grow in light, moderately fertile, humus-rich, moist but well-drained soil in full sun to light dappled shade. Small species with densely hairy or woolly leaves need sharp drainage and full sun. Protect these and frost-hardy species from excessive winter wet, and shelter from cold, drying winds. Pruning group 9, in spring.

To purchase Salvia seed, see: Salvia

Saponaria - Grow border perennials in mooderaely fertile, well-drained, neutral to slighlty alkaline soil in full sun. More compact species, such as S. caespitosa require gritty, sharply drained soil. Cut S. ocymoides back hard after flowering, to maintain a compact habit.

To purchase Saponaria seed, see: Saponaria

Saxifraga - Requirements fall broadly into 4 groups:

To purchase Saxifraga seed, see: Saxifraga

  1. Grow in moist but well-drained, humus-rich soil in deep or partial shade. Suitable for a rock garden.
  2. Grow in humus-rich, moist but very sharply drained, neutral to alkaline soil in light shade. Suitable for rock crevice, scree bed, or alpine house.
  3. Grow in moderately fertile, very well-drained, neutral to alkaline soil; keep roots moist. Tolerant of full sun in cool areas, but protect from hot sun in warm areas to prevent leaf scorch. Suitable for a rock garden or trough.
  4. Grow in moderately fertile, very sharply drained, alkaline soil or scree in full sun. Suitable for a rock garden, trough, alpine house, or tufa. Some are intolerant of winter wet. In an alpine house, grow in shallow pans in 2 parts loam-based compost (No. 1) and 1 part limestone chippings.

 

Scabiosa - Grow in moderately fertile, well-drained, neutral to slightly alkaline soil in full sun. Protect from excessive winter wet. Dead-head to prolong flowering. Divide and replant perennials in fresh or replenished soil every 3 years.

To purchase Scabiosa seed, see: Scabiosa

Scarlet Runner Beans - Grow in full sun in well-drained soil. This plants 4 to 6 inches apart when plants are 2 to 3 inches tall. Use support like a fence or trellis to grow on.

To purchase Scarlet Runner Beans seed, see: Scarlet Runner Beans

Sedum - Indoors, grow tender species in a mix of 3 parts loam-based potting compost (No. 2), 2 parts grit, and 1 part leaf mould, in full light with good ventilation. In growth, water moderately and apply a half-strength balanced liquid fertilizer every month; water sparingly in winter. Outdoors, grow in moderately fertile, well-drained, neutral to slightly alkaline soil in full sun. Vigorous species tolerate light shade. Cut back spreading species after flowering, to maintain shape. Divide larger, herbaceous species every 3 to 4 years to improve flowering.

To purchase Sedum seed, see: Sedum

Sempervivum - Grow in full sun in poor to moderately fertile, sharply drained soil, with added grit. Softly hairy speces resent winter wet and are best grown in an alpine house in areas with wet winters. In an alpine house, grow in a mix of equal parts loam-based potting compost (No. 2) and grit.

To purchase Sempervivum seed, see: Sempervivum

Sidalcea - Grow Grow in moderately fertile, humus-rich, moist but well-drained, light, sandy, neutral to slightly acid soil in full sun. Sidalceas will tolerate a wide range of soil conditions, but resent waterlogging. Provide a dry winter mulch of bracken or straw during prolonged frosty periods without protective snow cover. Cut stems back hard after flowering.

To purchase Sidalcea seed, see: Sidalcea Malviflora

Silene - Grow in moderately fertile, well-drained, neutral to slightly alkaline soil in full sun or lightly dappled shade. Grow smaller alpine species in sharply drained, gritty soil or in a scree bed, or in a mix of equal parts loam-based potting compost (No. 2) and sharp grit, in containers in an alpine house.

To purchase Silene seed, see: Silene

Silphium - Grow in moderately fertile, moist, deep, neutral to slightly alkaline soil in full sun or partial shade; best in heavy soil. S. perfoliatum prefers damper soil.

To purchase Silphium seed, see: Silphium

Slipper Flower - Indoors, grow in loam-based potting compost (No. 2) in bright filtered light with good ventilation. In the growing season, water freely and apply a balanced liquid fertilizer every 3 - 4 weeks; water sparingly in winter. Outdoors, grow in light, moderately fertile, acid soil in sun or partial shade. They require cool, moist conditions to flower freely. Grow alpine species outdoors in moist but well-drained, very gritty soil in partial shade; protect from winter wet. In an alpine house, grow in loam-based potting compost (No. 1), or in a mix of equal parts loam, leaf mould, and sharp sand; top-dress with grit. Pot on every second year in late spring.

To purchase Slipper Flower seed, see: Slipper Flower

Snapdragon - Grow A. majus cultivars in fertile, sharply drained soil in full sun. Dead-head to prolong flowering. Shrubby perennial species require very well-drained soil and shelter from wind; they are extremely brittle and sensitive to winter wet.

To purchase Snapdragon seed, see: Snapdragon

Snow in Summer - Grow in any well-drained soil in full sun.C. tomentosum is useful for poor soil on dry, sunny banks.

To purchase Snow in Summer seed, see: Snow in Summer

Solidago - Grow in poor to moderately fertile, preferably sandy, well-drained soil in full sun. Remove flowering stems to prevent seeding.

To purchase Solidago seed, see: Solidago - Goldenrod

Speedwell - Outdoors, grow alpines and rock garden veronicas in poor to moderately fertile, well-drained soil in full sun. Protect species with felted leaves from winter wet. In an alpine house, grow in a mix of equal parts loam, leaf mould, and grit. Grow border veronicas in loamy, moderately fertile, moist but well-drained soil in full sun or partial shade.

To purchase Speedwell seed, see: Speedwell - Creeping

St. John's Wort - Grow in moderately fertile, moist but well-drained soil, the larger species in sun or partial shade, the dwarf species in full sun and in sharply drained soil. Protect small rock garden species from excessie winter wet; shelter evergreen hypericums from cold, drying winds. Pruning group 1; or pruning group 6 for deciduous species, and pruning group 8 for evergreens. Cut H. calycinum to ground level in spring.

To purchase St. John's Wort seed, see: St. John's Wort

Statice - Outdoors, grow in preferably sandy, well-drained soil in full sun. Large perennials tolerate dry, stony soil. Protect dwarf species from winter wet. In an alpine house, grow in a mix of equal parts loam-based potting compost (No. 1) and grit.

To purchase Statice seed, see: Statice

Stock - Grow in moderately fertile, moist but well-drained, preferably neutral to slightly alkaline soil in a sheltered position in full sun. Give support to tall cultivars.

To purchase Stock seed, see: Stock

Strawberry - Grow in fertile, moist but well-drained, neutral to alkaline soil in full sun or light dapple shade. Strawberries tolerate acid soils, but will thrive in alkaline soils, particularly F. vesca. Protect the fruit of F. vesca with a straw mulch with a straw mulch underneath.

To purchase Strawberry seed, see: Strawberry

Sunflower - Grow in moderately fertile, humus-rich, moist but well-drained, neutral to alkaline soil in full sun. Sunflowers need long, hot summers to flower well. Most will tolerate dry soil. Tall species and cultivars require support. Top-dress perennials annually with garden compost or well-rotted manure. Divide and transplant perennials every 2 - 4 years to maintain vigor.

To purchase Sunflower seed, see: Sunflowers

Sweet Peas - Grow in fertile, humus-rich, well-drained soil in full sun or light dappled shade. Climbers need support. For the best flowers from L. odoratus, incorporate well-rotted organic matter in the season before planting, and apply a balanced liquid fertilizer every 2 weeks while in growth. Dead-head regularly. Sweet peas are usually grown on cane pyramids or trellis. Long-stemmed, exhibition quality blooms are grown as cordons in beds prepared by autumn. Bush sweet peas are dwarf, largely self-supporting, non-climbing cultivars.

To purchase Sweet Peas seed, see: Sweet Peas

Teasel - Grow in any moderately fertile soil, including heavy clay, in sun or partial shade. Flower heads should be harvested for air-drying form mid to late summer.

To purchase Teasel seed, see: Teasel

Texas Bluebonnet - Grow in moderately fertile, light and slightly acid, well-drained, sandy soil in full sun or partial shade. In an alpine house, grow in equaly parts loam, leaf mould, and grit.

To purchase Texas Bluebonnet seed, see: Texas Bluebonnet

Thunbergia - Indoors, grow in loam-based potting compost (No. 3) in full light with shade form hot sun. Support the climbing stems. In growth, water freely, applying a balanced liquid fertilizer monthly; water sparingly in winter. Outdoors, grow in moist but well-drained, fertile soil in full sun. Tropical climbers require partial shade. Pruning group 11 for climbers, in early spring; pruning group 9 for shrubs. All may need restrictive pruning when grown indoors.

To purchase Thunbergia seed, see: Thunbergia

Tidy Tips - Grow in moist but well-drained, ideally light, sandy, moderately fertile to poor soil in full sun. Very fertile soil encourages lax growth.

To purchase Tidy Tips seed, see: Tidy Tips

Toadflax - Grow in moderately fertile, light, well-drained, preferably sandy soil, in full sun.

To purchase Toadflax seed, see: Toadflax

Tolpis - Grow in well-drained, light, moderately fertile soil in full sun. Dead-head to prolong flowering.

To purchase Tolpis seed, see: Tolpis Barbata

Torenia - Indoors, grow in loam-based potting compost (No. 2) in bright filtered light, providing good ventilation. In the growin season, water freely and apply a high-potash liquid fertilizer every 2 to 3 weeks. Pinch out stems to promote bushiness. Outdoors, grow in fertile, moist but well-drained soil in partial shade.

To purchase Torenia seed, see: Torenia Fournieri

Trachelium - Grow in well-drained soil in full sun with some midday shade. In an alpine house, grow in deep containers in equal parts loam, leaf mould, and sharp sand.

To purchase Trachelium seed, see: Trachelium

Umbrella Plant - Indoors, grow in loam-based potting compost (No. 2) in bright filtered light. Stand containers in shallow trays of water to ensure ample moisture and high humidity at all times. In summer, apply a balanced liquid fertilizer monthly. To grow as a marginal in an indoor pool, grow in a watertight tub or bowl of loamy soil, top-dressed with a 1 inch layer of gravel. Set at pond edge with the gravel surface about 1 - 2 inches below water level. Outdoors, C. eragrostis thrives in moist soils, not necessarily damp ones, in sun or partial shade. It will usually self-seed, even if the parent plant is killed in extreme cold. Cut back dead material in late autumn.

To purchase Umbrella Plant seed, see: Umbrella Plant

Ursinia - Indoors, grow in loam-based potting compost (No. 1) in full light. In growth, water freely and apply a balanced liquid fertilizer every 4 weeks. Water sparingly in winter. Outdoors, grow in sandy, fertile, well-drained soil in full sun.

To purchase Ursinia seed, see: Ursinia Anthemoides

Venidium - Grow in light, moderately fertile, well-drained soil in a warm, sheltered site in full sun. Dead-head regularly to prolong flowering. In frost-prone climates, propagate annually and overwinter plants in frost-free conditions.

To purchase Venidium seed, see: Venidium

Verbascum - Grow in alkaline, poor, well-drained soil in full sun. In fertile soil they grow larger and need support. Protect alpines from winter wet. In an alpine house, use equal parts loam-based potting compost (No. 2) and grit.

To purchase Verbascum seed, see: Verbascum - Mix

Verbena - In containers, grow in loam-based potting compost (No. 2) with added sharp sand, in full sun. Water freely in growth, and apply a balanced liquid fertilizer monthly. Water more sparingly in winter. Outdoors, grow in moist but well-drained, moderately fertile soil in full sun. In frost-prone areas, protect with a dry winter mulch.

To purchase Verbena seed, see: Verbena

Veronica - Outdoors, grow alpines and rock garden veronicas in poor to moderately fertile, well-drained soil in full sun. Protect species with felted leaves from winter wet. In an alpine house, grow in a mix of equal parts loam, leaf mould, and grit. Grow border veronicas in loamy, moderately fertile, moist but well-drained soil in full sun or partial shade.

To purchase Veronica seed, see: Veronica

Viola - Grow in humus-rich, fertile, moist but well-drained soil in full sun or partial shade. In a rock garden, grow in poor to moderately fertile, gritty, sharply drained soil in full sun or partial shade; protect from winter wet. In an alpine house, use a mix of equal parts loam, leaf mould, and grit or tufa chips. Dead-head to prolong flowering. After flowering, cut back vigorous plants, especially V. cornuta, to keep compact.

To purchase Viola seed, see: Viola

Viscaria - Grow in any moderately fertile, well-drained soil in full sun or partial shade. L. chalcedonica, L. haageana, and L. viscaria prefer moist, fertile soil; grey-leaved species produce their best leaf color in dry soil in full sun. Dead-head to prolong flowering.

To purchase Viscaria seed, see: Viscaria

Wallflower - Grow in poor to moderately fertile, well-drained, neutral, or ideally, alkaline soil in full sun. Trim perennials lightly after flowering to prevent plants becoming leggy.

To purchase Wallflower seed, see: Wallflower

White Miniclover - Grow in moist but well-drained, neutral soil in full sun or partial shade.

To purchase White Miniclover seed, see: White Miniclover Seed

Wintergreen - Grow in acid to neutral, peaty, moist soil in partial shade; full sun is tolerated where the soil is permanently moist. Pruning group 8; remove suckers to restrict growth.

To purchase Wintergreen seed, see: Wintergreen

Xeranthemum - Grow in moderately fertile, well-drained soil in full sun. Provide support in exposed sites. Cut flowers for drying before they have fully opened and hang them upside down in a cool, dark, well-ventilated area.

To purchase Xeranthemum seed, see: Xeranthemum Annuum

Yarrow - Grow in moist but well-drained soil in an open site in full sun, although most will tolerated a wide range of soils and conditions. A. ageratum and A. ptarmica cultivars require more moisture than other achilleas, but not waterlogged soils, and partial shade. Dwarf species and silver and hairy-leaved alpine species must have sharp drainage.

To purchase Yarrow seed, see: Yarrow

Zea Mays - Grow in a warm, sheltered site in fertile, moist but well-drained soil in full sun.

To purchase Zea Mays seed, see: Zea Mays

Zinnia - Grow in fertile, humus-rich, well-drained soil in full sun. Dead-head to prolong flowering.

To purchase Zinnia seed, see: Zinnia

Zizia Aurea - Grow in full sun to partial shade, and the soil should be moist and loamy and can contain some rocky material.

To purchase Zizia Aurea seed, see: Zizia Aurea


If you are planting seeds indoors or in a greenhouse for transplanting, you should put your plants through a process of, "hardening off." Here are three tips on how to do this obtained from gardening.about.com which is a good reference.

Young, pampered seedlings that were grown either indoors or in a greenhouse will need a period to adjust and acclimate to outdoor conditions, prior to planting in the garden. This transition period is called "hardening off". Hardening off gradually exposes the tender plants to wind, sun and rain and toughens them up by thickening the cuticle on the leaves so that the leaves lose less water. This helps prevent transplant shock; seedlings that languish, become stunted or die from sudden changes in temperature. Hardening off times depend on the type of plants you are growing and the temperature and temperature fluctuations. So be flexible when hardening off your seedlings and be prepared to whisk them indoors if there's a late freeze and snow.

There are 3 approaches to hardening off:

  1. Gradually longer periods of time outdoors
  2. Place in a cold frame
  3. Withholding Water

 

Gradually Longer periods of Time Outdoors

  1. Begin 7 - 10 days before your transplant date.
  2. Place plants in a sheltered, shady spot outdoors. Under a tree or even on your back porch is fine. Leave them for 3-4 hours and gradually increase the time spent outside by 1-2 hours per day.
  3. Bring plants back indoors each night.
  4. After 2-3 days, move the plants from their shady spot into morning sun, return them to the shade in the afternoon.
  5. After 7 days, the plants should be able to handle sun all day and stay out at night, if temperatures stay around 50 degrees F. Keep an eye out that the soil doesn't dry and bake the plants, if the weather is warm.
  6. After 7 -10 days your plants are ready to transplant. Try to do so on a cloudy day and be sure to water well after planting.

 

Place in a Cold Frame

  1. Begin 7 - 10 days before your transplant date.
  2. Indoor grown plants can be moved and left in a cold frame, for hardening off.
  3. Turn off heating cables and/or open the cold frame cover for gradually longer periods of time. Start with 3-4 hours and gradually increase the exposure time by 1-2 hours per day.
  4. Close the cover and resume heating at night, if temperatures dip below about 40 degrees F.
  5. Plants should be ready to transplant in 7 - 10 days. Try to do so on a cloudy day and be sure to water well after planting.

 

Withholding Water

Allowing seedlings to wilt has the same effect as gradually exposing them to the elements.

  1. Starting about 2 weeks before your transplant date, don't water your seedlings until they start to wilt.
  2. At this point, water normally, then wait for them to wilt again.
  3. After 2 weeks of this process, seedlings should be ready to transplant. Try to do so on a cloudy day and be sure to water well after planting.